Modernist Vs Experimental Poetry
Modernist poetry pushes the boundaries of what is considered literature. These poems can be hard to understand and often require the reader to have a high level of reading sophistication to even approach the work.
One example is H. D.’s epic poem Helen in Egypt, which combines several different genres including modernist poetry with ancient Greek myth and classical drama. While it’s not considered the most modernist work, this poem still represents many modernist ideas.
Modernist poetry often breaks with poetic tradition in its diction and rhythms. It uses allusion, layering and a willingness to experiment with language in poems that respond to historical traumas, the excitement of new scientific advances and political initiatives.
This type of poetry has been called post-Romantic, Symbolist and Imagist. It can be lexically and semantically challenging for the uninitiated reader, especially when it uses intellectual/cerebral symbols such as Yeats’ ‘purple glow on Lake Isle of Innisfree’ or Ezra Pound’s ‘head upon a platter’ in his The Cantos.
Some of this poetry may also use a variety of different forms to communicate its ideas, including the use of a collage technique such as cutting up newspapers or typing manuscripts to create lines in a poem. Other poets write multi-themed poems such as Marianne Moore’s “Jellyfish” that is at once about nature, spirituality and art.
Generally speaking, poets who write experimental poetry aren’t interested in simply walking the same ground that many of their predecessors have. They’re willing to take risks, and sometimes those risks are so difficult for readers to understand that they are unable to accept the work.
Many of the works that are considered modernist experiment with the concept of language as a raw material. They also explore the nonverbal side of the medium. These explorations can lead to works that are open to a wide variety of interpretations and don’t have a recognizable story progression.
This can make modernist poetry difficult to read, but it can also be extremely rewarding. For example, the poem “The Hollow Men” by Thomas Stearns Eliot is a dark and haunting portrayal of hopelessness in post-World War I Europe. But the poem can be interpreted in a number of ways, including that the narrators are trapped in a twilight world between death and spiritual conversion.
Modernist poetry often uses a wide variety of themes, subjects and issues. It also uses new forms and techniques. It often pushes the boundaries of language and stretches the limits of what is logical or reasonable. This makes it challenging for the average reader.
For example, a poem like Ezra Pound’s The Cantos is a long, epic poem that contains history, music, literature, politics, philosophy and even religion to create a personal history of 20th century life. Other modernist poems, such as T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land, use various narratives and voices to show how war, cultural problems and racial biases have made it impossible for humankind to achieve peace.
Other modernist poets, such as Wallace Stevens and Gertrude Stein, experimented with stream of consciousness writing styles. They also explored sexuality in their works. These authors tended to be more pessimistic than their predecessors and saw contemporary upheavals as almost hopeless. They also were more willing to incorporate mythology into their work.
Modernist literature, especially poetry, is characterized by the radical break with traditional subjects, forms and styles. It is rife with allusions, linguistic experimentation and word games, as well as complex and open-ended meanings. This kind of literary language is reminiscent of historical avant-garde movements such as Dadaist and Futurist poetry.
In addition to a lack of form, modernist poetry tends to avoid rhyme and meter. Instead, it relies on free verse patterns that mimic the rhythms of natural speech.
This means that a poem might be about multiple themes at once, rather than focusing on one subject or theme. For example, Marianne Moore’s Jellyfish is simultaneously about the nature of jellyfish, feminism, and modes of poetic expression. This is also true of many other modernist poems. This kind of multi-theme approach is often referred to as a polyvalent reading in critical circles. Derek beaulieu and Gregory Betts explain that polyvalent readings can “create more creative anti-readings than misreadings” (257). In other words, a reader must struggle to find logical support for the open-ended themes they may find in a given poem.